Tuesday, March 1, 2011

Answers to Some Questions?

What are the advantages of a multiple column grid?
A multiple column grid organizes a layout and acts as an guide for placing information in a stronger hierarchy. It allows for complex information to be well-guided and seamless for linear reading and understanding.


How many characters is optimal for a line length, words per line?
50-65 characters works best for line length. There should be anywhere from 6-8 words per line.


Why is the baseline grid used in design?
It allows for the bottom of every line of text to be set at similar increments, thus all of lines match up across the columns and create visual rhythm.

What is a typographic river?
Gaps that appear to run down a paragraph of text, due to a coincidental alignment of spaces. They can occur regardless of the space setting, but are most noticeable with wide inter-word spaces caused by full text justification or monospaced fonts.

From the readings what does clothesline or flow line mean?
An imaginary line that aligns text horizontally to allow for good readability and flow.

How can you incorporate white space into your designs?
White or negative space can be incorporated into designs by grouping or breaking up text into sections. Also leaving margins blank and maintaining asymmetry in white space makes for a dynamic composition.

What is type color/texture mean?
Typographic color is determined by the typeface, weight, spacing, leading, line length and more. It can be used to create depth, contrast, and varying densities and values throughout the design.

What is x-height, how does it effect type color?
X-height is the height from the baseline to usually the top of a lowercase letter in a typeface. It affects typographic color because it can give the copy varying values of color through its size differentiation.


In justification or H&J terms what do the numbers: minimum, optimum, maximum mean?
Minimum refers to the least amount of words before and after a hyphen. Maximum refers to the space being manipulated so the right and left margins are straight. Optimum refers to fitting the most amount of words in a given space with consideration to page style.

What are some ways to indicate a new paragraph. Are there any rules?
There are many ways. It can be done through use of rules, color fields, dropcaps, different font-styles like bold or italic, weight, leading, size, indentation, highlights, spacing, and more. The only rule I know of is to not indent the first paragraph.

What are some things to look out for when hyphenating text.
Make sure there are no more than 3 consecutive hyphenated words. Avoid frequent hyphenating, and avoid hyphenating headings.

What is a literature?
Art of written work

What does CMYK and RGB mean?
CMYK is the acronym for Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black and is commonly used in the color printing process. RGB means Red-Green-Blue and is an additive color spectrum that reproduces vast arrays of color in a similar way CMYK does, but is predominately used in electronic color display.

What does hanging punctuation mean?
Hanging punctuation is when the first quotation hangs outside the line of copy.

What is the difference between a foot mark and an apostrophe?
A foot mark is a straight line used for measurement, while an apostrophe is a single quotation mark used to close a word

What is the difference between an inch mark and a quote mark (smart quote)?
Quote marks indicate dialogue or speech, inch marks represent measurement.

What is a hyphen, en dash and em dashes, what are the differences and when are they used.
Hyphens are used to break words and lines. En dashes are used between words indicating duration of time. Em dashes are used for sudden changes in thought.

What are ligatures, why are they used, when are they not used, what are common ligatures
Ligatures are single forms incorporating two or more letters, parts that touch or overlap for instance fi and fl. A set of standard ligatures would be- fi fl ff ffl or ffi. There are also special ligatures in which an extended set of many letters are combined for visual effect. The designer may choose when to use ligatures.

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